NFS superblock 오류 해결법 

오류 메시지 

root@hosts:/usr/local# mount /backup


mount: wrong fs type, bad option, bad superblock on 192.168.1111.11:/vol/nas,

missing codepage or helper program, or other error

(for several filesystems (e.g. nfs, cifs) you might

need a /sbin/mount.<type> helper program)

In some cases useful info is found in syslog - try

dmesg | tail or so


해결책 : NFS 추가 페키지 설치

Redhat / CentOS:  yum install nfs-utils

Debian / Ubuntu:  apt-get install nfs-common



해결 방법 상세


root@hosts:/usr/local# apt-get install nfs-common

패키지 목록을 읽는 중입니다... 완료

의존성 트리를 만드는 중입니다

상태 정보를 읽는 중입니다... 완료

다음 패키지를 더 설치할 것입니다:

keyutils libgssglue1 libnfsidmap2 libtirpc1 rpcbind

제안하는 패키지:

open-iscsi watchdog

다음 새 패키지를 설치할 것입니다:

keyutils libgssglue1 libnfsidmap2 libtirpc1 nfs-common rpcbind

0개 업그레이드, 6개 새로 설치, 0개 제거 및 299개 업그레이드 안 함.

375 k바이트 아카이브를 받아야 합니다.

이 작업 후 1,524 k바이트의 디스크 공간을 더 사용하게 됩니다.

계속 하시겠습니까? [Y/n] y

받기:1 trusty/main libgssglue1 amd64 0.4-2ubuntu1 [19.7 kB]

받기:2 trusty/main libnfsidmap2 amd64 0.25-5 [32.2 kB]

받기:3 trusty/main libtirpc1 amd64 0.2.2-5ubuntu2 [71.3 kB]

받기:4 trusty/main keyutils amd64 1.5.6-1 [33.6 kB]

받기:5 trusty-updates/main rpcbind amd64 0.2.1-2ubuntu2.2 [37.1 kB]

받기:6 trusty-updates/main nfs-common amd64 1:1.2.8-6ubuntu1.2 [181 kB]

내려받기 375 k바이트, 소요시간 5초 (62.9 k바이트/초)

Selecting previously unselected package libgssglue1:amd64.

(데이터베이스 읽는중 ...현재 66660개의 파일과 디렉터리가 설치되어 있습니다.)

Preparing to unpack .../libgssglue1_0.4-2ubuntu1_amd64.deb ...

Unpacking libgssglue1:amd64 (0.4-2ubuntu1) ...

Selecting previously unselected package libnfsidmap2:amd64.

Preparing to unpack .../libnfsidmap2_0.25-5_amd64.deb ...

Unpacking libnfsidmap2:amd64 (0.25-5) ...

Selecting previously unselected package libtirpc1:amd64.

Preparing to unpack .../libtirpc1_0.2.2-5ubuntu2_amd64.deb ...

Unpacking libtirpc1:amd64 (0.2.2-5ubuntu2) ...

Selecting previously unselected package keyu




paring to unpack .../keyutils_1.5.6-1_amd64.deb ...

Unpacking keyutils (1.5.6-1) ...

Selecting previously unselected package rpcb



paring to unpack .../rpcbind_0.2.1-2ubuntu2.2_amd64.deb ...

Unpacking rpcbind (0.2.1-2ubuntu2.2) ...

Selecting previously unselected package nfs-common.

Preparing to unpack .../nfs-common_1%3a1.2.8-6ubuntu1.2_amd64.deb ...

Unpacking nfs-common (1:1.2.8-6ubuntu1.2) ...

Processing triggers for man-db ( ...

Processing triggers for ureadahead (0.100.0-16) ...

ureadahead will be reprofiled on next reboot

libgssglue1:amd64 (0.4-2ubuntu1) 설정하는 중입니다 ...

libnfsidmap2:amd64 (0.25-5) 설정하는 중입니다 ...

libtirpc1:amd64 (0.2.2-5ubuntu2) 설정하는 중입니다 ...

keyutils (1.5.6-1) 설정하는 중입니다 ...

rpcbind (0.2.1-2ubuntu2.2) 설정하는 중입니다 ...

Removing any system startup links for /etc/init.d/rpcbind ...

rpcbind start/running, process 29183

Processing triggers for ureadahead (0.100.0-16) ...

nfs-common (1:1.2.8-6ubuntu1.2) 설정하는 중입니다 ...



ating config file /etc/idmapd.conf with new version


Creating config file /etc/default/nfs-common with new version

시스템 사용자 `statd' (111) 추가 ...

새로운 사용자 `statd' (111) 을(를) 그룹 `nogroup'(으)로 추가 ...

홈 디렉토리 '/var/lib/nfs' 을(를) 만들지 않습니다.

statd start/running, process 29420

gssd stop/pre-start, process 29456

idmapd start/running, process 29504

Processing triggers for libc-bin (2.19-0ubuntu6) ...

Processing triggers for ureadahead (0.100.0-16) ...






리눅스 에러코드 정리

에러코드 1부터 34까지의 리눅스 에러코드 내용은  /usr/include/asm-generic/errno-base.h 파일에 있으며


에러코드 35부터 133까지의 리눅스 에러코드 내요은 /usr/include/asm-generic/errno.h 파일에 있음


위에 두 파일을 정리하자면!



define함수  에러코드    메시지/증상

                      0       정상(에러 없음)

EPERM            1      Operation not permitted
ENOENT           2      No such file or directory
ESRCH            3      No such process
EINTR            4      Interrupted system call
EIO              5      I/O error
ENXIO            6      No such device or address
E2BIG            7      Argument list too long
ENOEXEC          8      Exec format error
EBADF            9      Bad file number
ECHILD          10      No child processes
EAGAIN          11      Try again
ENOMEM          12      Out of memory
EACCES          13      Permission denied
EFAULT          14      Bad address
ENOTBLK         15      Block device required
EBUSY           16      Device or resource busy
EEXIST          17      File exists
EXDEV           18      Cross-device link
ENODEV          19      No such device
ENOTDIR         20      Not a directory

EISDIR          21      Is a directory
EINVAL          22      Invalid argument
ENFILE          23      File table overflow
EMFILE          24      Too many open files
ENOTTY          25      Not a typewriter
ETXTBSY         26      Text file busy
EFBIG           27      File too large
ENOSPC          28      No space left on device
ESPIPE          29      Illegal seek
EROFS           30      Read-only file system
EMLINK          31      Too many links
EPIPE           32      Broken pipe
EDOM            33      Math argument out of domain of func
ERANGE          34      Math result not representable
EDEADLK         35      Resource deadlock would occur
ENAMETOOLONG    36      File name too long
ENOLCK          37      No record locks available
ENOSYS          38      Function not implemented
ENOTEMPTY       39      Directory not empty
ELOOP           40      Too many symbolic links encountered
EWOULDBLOCK      EAGAIN  Operation would block

ENOMSG          42      No message of desired type
EIDRM           43      Identifier removed
ECHRNG          44      Channel number out of range
EL2NSYNC        45      Level 2 not synchronized
EL3HLT          46      Level 3 halted
EL3RST          47      Level 3 reset
ELNRNG          48      Link number out of range
EUNATCH         49      Protocol driver not attached
ENOCSI          50      No CSI structure available
EL2HLT          51      Level 2 halted
EBADE           52      Invalid exchange
EBADR           53      Invalid request descriptor
EXFULL          54      Exchange full
ENOANO          55      No anode
EBADRQC         56      Invalid request code
EBADSLT         57      Invalid slot
EBFONT          59      Bad font file format
ENOSTR          60      Device not a stream

ENODATA         61      No data available
ETIME           62      Timer expired
ENOSR           63      Out of streams resources
ENONET          64      Machine is not on the network
ENOPKG          65      Package not installed
EREMOTE         66      Object is remote
ENOLINK         67      Link has been severed
EADV            68      Advertise error
ESRMNT          69      Srmount error
ECOMM           70      Communication error on send
EPROTO          71      Protocol error
EMULTIHOP       72      Multihop attempted
EDOTDOT         73      RFS specific error
EBADMSG         74      Not a data message
EOVERFLOW       75      Value too large for defined data type
ENOTUNIQ        76      Name not unique on network
EBADFD          77      File descriptor in bad state
EREMCHG         78      Remote address changed
ELIBACC         79      Can not access a needed shared library
ELIBBAD         80      Accessing a corrupted shared library

ELIBSCN         81      .lib section in a.out corrupted
ELIBMAX         82      Attempting to link in too many shared libraries
ELIBEXEC        83      Cannot exec a shared library directly
EILSEQ          84      Illegal byte sequence
ERESTART        85      Interrupted system call should be restarted
ESTRPIPE        86      Streams pipe error
EUSERS          87      Too many users
ENOTSOCK        88      Socket operation on non-socket
EDESTADDRREQ    89      Destination address required
EMSGSIZE        90      Message too long
EPROTOTYPE      91      Protocol wrong type for socket
ENOPROTOOPT     92      Protocol not available
EPROTONOSUPPORT 93      Protocol not supported
ESOCKTNOSUPPORT 94      Socket type not supported
EOPNOTSUPP      95      Operation not supported on transport endpoint
EPFNOSUPPORT    96      Protocol family not supported
EAFNOSUPPORT    97      Address family not supported by protocol
EADDRINUSE      98      Address already in use
EADDRNOTAVAIL   99      Cannot assign requested address
ENETDOWN        100     Network is down

ENETUNREACH     101     Network is unreachable
ENETRESET       102     Network dropped connection because of reset
ECONNABORTED    103     Software caused connection abort
ECONNRESET      104     Connection reset by peer
ENOBUFS         105     No buffer space available
EISCONN         106     Transport endpoint is already connected
ENOTCONN        107     Transport endpoint is not connected
ESHUTDOWN       108     Cannot send after transport endpoint shutdown
ETOOMANYREFS    109     Too many references: cannot splice
ETIMEDOUT       110     Connection timed out
ECONNREFUSED    111     Connection refused
EHOSTDOWN       112     Host is down
EHOSTUNREACH    113     No route to host
EALREADY        114     Operation already in progress
EINPROGRESS     115     Operation now in progress
ESTALE          116     Stale NFS file handle
EUCLEAN         117     Structure needs cleaning
ENOTNAM         118     Not a XENIX named type file
ENAVAIL         119     No XENIX semaphores available
EISNAM          120     Is a named type file

EREMOTEIO       121     Remote I/O error
EDQUOT          122     Quota exceeded
ENOMEDIUM       123     No medium found
EMEDIUMTYPE     124     Wrong medium type
ECANCELED       125     Operation Canceled
ENOKEY          126     Required key not available
EKEYEXPIRED     127     Key has expired
EKEYREVOKED     128     Key has been revoked
EKEYREJECTED    129     Key was rejected by service
EOWNERDEAD      130     Owner died
ENOTRECOVERABLE 131     State not recoverable
ERFKILL         132     Operation not possible due to RF-kill
EHWPOISON       133     Memory page has hardware error



■ 실전 확인 A




echo $? 명령어는 이전 실행한 명령어의 상태값을 확인 할 수 있다.


해당 명령어로 출력되는 값 0은 에러없음(정상)이다.


리눅스 에러코드 값은 위에 파란바탕화면 내용 참고



■ 실전 확인 B




동일하게 ls 명령어 뒤에 아무문자열을 입력하고 이전명령어의 에러값을 호출하였다.


에러코드는 2로서 No such file or directory 이다.












리눅스 타임존 변경


1. 리눅스 타임존 확인

간단히 #date라는 명령어로 확인할 수 있으며 아래와 같이 JST로 설정되어 있다.


물론 일본이랑 한국은 타임존이 동일하긴 한대.. 설치과정에서 실수가 있었나 보다.


2. 타임존 변경

# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo 를 통해 사용가능한 타임존을 설정할 수 있다.


한국의 경우 Zoneinfo 하위 경로인 Asia 경로에 존재한다.




# ls /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia 경로안에 보면 Seoul 이보인다. korea로는 없고 Seoul로 타임존이 존재한다.




변경할 타임존을 확인하였다면 아래와 같이 심볼릭 링크를 설정하자


# ln -sf /usr/share/zoneinfo/Asia/Seoul  /etc/localtime



설정 후 date 명령어를 통해 확인하면 한국 표준시인 KST 로 변경되었음을 볼 수 있다.










  1. JaeHa 2014.09.04 00:44 신고

    도움되었습니다. 감사합니다 ^^




본딩(Bonding) 구성 후 설정 확인 방법



리눅스 초기 구축시 본딩을(Bonding) Active-Backup으로 구성하는데


시간이 지나면 이더넷0번에서 통신하는지 이더넷 1번에서 통신하는지 알 수가 없다.


아래의 내용은 구축한 본딩의 이더넷 포트중 어느 포트가 Active 인지 확인하는 방법을 정리한다.


기본적으로 확인하는 명령어는 RHEL, Centos 동일하며 간단히 볼드체만 봐도 이해가 갈것 같다.


Redhat Enterprise Linux 4.4



sh-3.00$ cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0


Ethernet Channel Bonding Driver: v2.6.3-rh (June 8, 2005)


Bonding Mode: fault-tolerance (active-backup)

Primary Slave: None

Currently Active Slave: eth0

MII Status: up

MII Polling Interval (ms): 100

Up Delay (ms): 0

Down Delay (ms): 0


Slave Interface: eth0

MII Status: up

Link Failure Count: 0

Permanent HW addr: 00:12:34:56:78:90


Slave Interface: eth1

MII Status: up

Link Failure Count: 0

Permanent HW addr: 00:12:34:56:79:91






CentOS 6.2



$ cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0

Ethernet Channel Bonding Driver: v3.6.0 (September 26, 2009)


Bonding Mode: fault-tolerance (active-backup)

Primary Slave: None

Currently Active Slave: eth0

MII Status: up

MII Polling Interval (ms): 100

Up Delay (ms): 0

Down Delay (ms): 0


Slave Interface: eth0

MII Status: up

Speed: 1000 Mbps

Duplex: full

Link Failure Count: 0

Permanent HW addr: 00:12:34:56:78:90

Slave queue ID: 0


Slave Interface: eth1

MII Status: up

Speed: 1000 Mbps

Duplex: full

Link Failure Count: 0

Permanent HW addr: 00:12:34:56:79:91

Slave queue ID: 0













리눅스 바이오스 시간 확인 및 설정


테스트 환경

OS : CentOS 6.2


* 1달전 설치한 서버의 검수를 오늘 하는데 bios 날짜가 안맞다는 컴플레인..ㅡㅡ


   서버 재부팅도 못한다고 하길래..확인은 어찌했을까? 싶어 histoy 명령어를 쳐봤더니.. hwclock 명령어가 나오더이다.


   구글신의 도움으로 정리하자면 다음과 같다.


CMOS(bios) 시간 확인 방법

# hwclock --show



CMOS(bios) 시간 동기화

date 명령어를 통해 확인한 시간과 hwclock을 통한 바이오스상의 시간차가 아래와 같이 발생함을 확인




OS 시간과 동기화 진행


# hwclock --systohc



다시 확인하니 바이오스와 OS 상의 시간이 동기화 되었음을 확인하였다











리눅스 민트(LinuxMint) 다운로드 경로


리눅스 배포판 : 리눅스 민트 

요세 우분투보다 리눅스 민트가 대세라는데..


왜자꾸 껌이 생각나는지..ㅋㅋ


최신버진이 벌써 15 버전.. 코드명 올리비아~


다운로드 및 버전 설명

다운로드 경로 :


현재 가장 최신버전은 리눅스 민트 15 올리비아 이며 아래와 같이 4개의 에디션이 존재 한다.


맨위에 있는 Cinamon 버전이 모든 기능을 다 포함하고 있는 버전이므로 초보자가 사용하기 적합하고


그 밑으로 내려갈때마다 가벼운? 버전이다.



리눅스 민트 15 올리비아 시나몬에 대한 상세한 정보



리눅스민트 15버전 시나몬 32bit 토렌트 경로 :


리눅스민트 15버전 시나몬 64bit 토렌트 경로 :








  1. 2013.08.13 12:03





Linux 명령어 창에서 인터넷 하기



리눅스 머신 설치시 X-Windows를 설치하지 않았거나, 성능을위해 설치하지 않는경우


테스트 목적이든 아님 정보를 얻기 위해서든 웹서핑을 해야 하는 경우가 있다.


명령어 창에서 사용가능한 패키지들이 많지만 그중에서 Lynx를 소개하고자 한다.

설치및 사용방법

설치 방법


ubuntu : #sudo apt-get install lynx

CentOS : #yum install lynx


사용방법 : #lynx URL


아래는를 접속한 화면입니다. 간단한 텍스트 화면은 정상적으로 잘나오던데

간단할것 같던 Google 첫 페이지 표시되지 않는다..ㅡㅡ







그래서 View with less를 통해 본화면,. 소스코드만.. 주루륵..



하지만 단순한 HTML 페이지는 잘 보인다.












리눅스(Linux 파일 변경시점 확인하기


명령어 사용법

# stat 파일명



access : 해당 파일을 실행한 시점
change : 해당 파일의 소유권 및 퍼미션이 변경된 시점
modify : 해당 파일의 내용이 변경된 시점


명령어 상세 옵션

형식 : stat [OPTION] FILE...


-L, --dereference

follow links

-Z, --context

print the security context information if available

-f, --file-system

display file system status instead of file status

-c --format=FORMAT

use the specified FORMAT instead of the default; output a newline after each use of FORMAT


like --format, but interpret backslash escapes, and do not output a mandatory trailing newline.

If you want a newline, include \n in FORMAT.

-t, --terse

print the information in terse form

--help display this help and exit


output version information and exit

The valid format sequences for files (without --file-system):

%a Access rights in octal

%A Access rights in human readable form

%b Number of blocks allocated (see %B)

%B The size in bytes of each block reported by %b

%d Device number in decimal

%D Device number in hex

%f Raw mode in hex

%F File type

%g Group ID of owner

%G Group name of owner

%h Number of hard links

%i Inode number

%n File name

%N Quoted file name with dereference if symbolic link

%o I/O block size

%s Total size, in bytes

%t Major device type in hex

%T Minor device type in hex

%u User ID of owner

%U User name of owner

%x Time of last access

%X Time of last access as seconds since Epoch

%y Time of last modification

%Y Time of last modification as seconds since Epoch

%z Time of last change

%Z Time of last change as seconds since Epoch

Valid format sequences for file systems:

%a Free blocks available to non-superuser

%b Total data blocks in file system

%c Total file nodes in file system

%d Free file nodes in file system

%f Free blocks in file system

%C Security context in SELinux

%i File System ID in hex

%l Maximum length of filenames

%n File name

%s Block size (for faster transfers)

%S Fundamental block size (for block counts)

%t Type in hex

%T Type in human readable form






RED5 릴리즈 정보


변경된 사항

RED 1.0 버전명이 Final 이네요.


이후의 버전은 나오지 않으려 하나?


Red5 홈페이지에도 찾기 힘든 버전별 히스토리 정보를 공유 합니다.



RED5 Reference 가이드 : red5-reference-1.0.pdf

change log

Red5 1.0.0 (2012-12-03)
New Features:
- Added vod and live application samples
- Added Aggregate packet type
- Added AMF3 Vector type
- Added dynamic streaming and play2 support
- JMX overhauled to utilize built-in Spring objects
- Modified bandwidth handling to more acurately follow what FMS does
- Modifications to support Wirecast and other broadcast clients that don't use the same publish request that FlashPlayer uses

Bugfixes: 151 since 0.9.2

Other: 277 issues since 0.9.2

Also note that these bug / issue details are a small subset of reported items since 2010, the older wiki and Trac are no longer available for comparison.

Red5 0.9.0 (2010-01-27)
New Features:
- Added AVC/h.264 live streaming based on Tiago Jacobs patches
- Added enums for Audio and Video codec types
- Added capability to add IoFilters to RTMPConnection per application
- Added AAC live streaming code based on Wittawas Nakkasem's IceSurf code
- Created plug-in / server module system
- Created ICY / NSV streaming plug-in
- Created Authentication plug-in supporting FMS and Red5 authentication routines
- Created Administration plug-in based on the admin demo
- Added native RTMPS support

- Fixed bug with recording, where meta files were not removed when using the same name
- Changed VideoCodecFactory into a "true" factory class
- Applied patch for h.264 live stream packet handling from Dave Feltenberger
- Applied FP patch from Ari-Pekka Viitanen
- Fixed #652 Mistake in RTMPT Configuration lines in red5-core.xml
- Fixed #635 Bug with loading global flashpolicy.xml file
- Fixed #651 RTMPMinaTransport throws exception if isEnableMinaMonitor is true
- Fixed security policy for red5; Java Security Manager may now be used
- Fixed #653 Missing license headers
- Fixed #654 ContextLoggingListener for Logback 0.9.17
- Fixed #631 Memory leak using IServiceCapableConnection.invoke
- Fixed #638 Flash Lite 3.0 conneting with RED5 (invalid)
- Fixed #657 Timestamp corruption in recorded .flv, when stream also subscribed
- Fixed #658 Broken servlet paths for RTMPT and RTMPS
- Fixed #497 Flash Player cannot connect to RTMPS with error NetConnection.Connect.CertificateUntrustedSigner
- Fixed #582 Native SSL support for RTMPS (no HTTP wrapping)
- Fixed #479 -,,, - does not work

Red5 0.8.0 (2009-06-04)
New Features:
- Use ExtendedPropertyPlaceholderConfigurer for Spring placeholderConfig bean
  (APPSERVER-333; Patch from Michael Guymon)
- Updated Mina to 2.0.0-M6
- Multiple socket binding on single RTMP transports
- Context duplication on each Catalina host

- Red5 War Version Does not Shutdown Gracefully (APPSERVER-325; patch from
  Gordon Hempton).
- Scope Memory Leak (APPSERVER-347; patch from Gordon Hempton)
- AMF3 uses Maps for references (CODECS-13; patch from Peter Rendl)
- src/org/red5/io/flv/meta/ use Jetty log instead of slf4j
  (APPSERVER-318; patch from Damien Raude-Morvan)
- References are stored too late when deserializing AMF3 arrays (CODECS-12;
  patch from Peter Rendl).
- ConversionUtils fail to convert to primitive arrays (CODECS-14;
  patch from Peter Rendl).
- ConversionUtils fail to convert to sets (CODECS-15; patch from Peter Rendl).
- Encoded double arrays contain integer values (APPSERVER-362; patch from
  Christoph Botsch)
- Errors logged for empty class name (CODECS-17; patch from Peter Rendl)
- Destroy and disposible bean lifecycle events were not firing in the server
  upon shutdown and jvm exit (No jira)
- Created means for segregated Quartz schedulers per application. The bug was
  that the main scheduler has no idea where to location classes you try
  to access in your scheduled job (No jira)
- Issue when reading empty persistent shared objects (APPSERVER-364)
- Removed Jacksum API, replaced with function available in commons-codec (APPSERVER-350)
- Added updated implementation of RtmpSampleAccess (APPSERVER-315)
- Added configuration to ContextLoader for shutdown hook to fix APPSERVER-372
- Allow usage of different SLF4J implementations instead of logback only as forced by Red5LoggerFactory (APPSERVER-369)
- Logging broken by revision 3606 (APPSERVER-383)
- Added ping calculation patch
- War deployment (APPSERVER-357)

Red5 0.8.0 RC2 (2009-02-07)
New Features:
- Testing: Added a new automated testing framework

- RemotingClient decoding errors (Jira APPSERVER-296)
- Codec typos (Jira APPSERVER-309)
- Exception is thrown when doing operation (Jira SN-94)
- Scope access does not work if invoked from external Application
  (Jira APPSERVER-306)
- Childscopes not visible on customly created scopes (Jira APPSERVER-298)
- Config removal dynamically created room scopes (Jira APPSERVER-165)
- NullPointerException in RTMPProtocolDecoder.decodeHeader under load
  (Jira SN-103)
- Remote Shared Objects: Sync event doesnt dispatch (Jira CS-5)
- Server doesn't start on Windows (JIRA APPSERVER-336)
- Cannot run red5.bat when there is existing classpath set in environment
- NetStream.send in record mode not working (Jira APPSERVER-329)
- NetStream.send "append" mode patch (Jira APPSERVER-338)
- Memory leak in RemotingConnection (Jira APPSERVER-328)
- Connection objects are not removed from parent scopes when a connection
  is refused in a sub-scope (Jira APPSERVER-261)
- WAR deployer is failing to extract war files (Jira APPSERVER-337)
- Security sandbox violation: BitmapData.draw (Jira APPSERVER-315)
- AMF0 does not echo Array's the way AMF3 does (Jira APPSERVER-311)
- Red5LoggerFactory fails with an NPE if you pass in a context name that
  hasn't been defined or is not known (Jira APPSERVER-341)
- red5.bat doesn't work on Windows machines, red5-debug.bat works, though.
  (Jira APPSERVER-340)
- KeepAliveJob does not disconnect client regardless of MaxInactivity setting (Jira APPSERVER-342)
- Issues serializing Custom Objects contained in Arrays or collections (Jira APPSERVER-320)

Red5 0.8.0 RC1 (2008-09-29)
New Features:
- Socket policy file server to support new security model, starting
  with Flash Player 9,0,124,0
- Virtual hosting capabilities (Tomcat only)
- W3C log appender for logback modeled after FMS log events and categories
- Ability to unload a context using the ContextLoader
- RTMPS support (Jira SN-69)
- Set default J2EE servlet container / HTTP server to Tomcat
- Flex based application installer for Red5 web applications
- War auto-deployer service
- Added additional MP3 ID3 data to the onMetaData event
- onImageData and MP3 cover art support

- RTMPProtocolDecoder fixed to support RSO sendMessage (Jira CODECS-9)
- Fixed Tomcat logging problem
- Fixed memory leak in ServiceUtils
- Fixed connection timeout (Jira SN-95 / APPSERVER-274)
- Resolved exception with WarLoaderServlet (Jira APPSERVER-224)
- Resolved log directory issue (Jira APPSERVER-246)
- Resolved ServerStream issue with w3c logging (Jira APPSERVER-263)
- Added patch to support ability to implement IBroadcastStream for custom
  streaming protocols (Jira SN-87)
- Resolved OSX connection problem with players > version 9,0,115
- Added patch for InvocationTargetException on missing files
  (Jira SN-99 and SN-97)
- Fixed a small issue with stream ids > 100
- Added patch for FLV metadata handling
- Added patch for RTMPT client
- Added patch for start and stop scripts
- Fixed logging in web applications
- Root cause was not being sent on error in Flex message service
  (Jira APPSERVER-288)
- Allow serializer to make use of other annotations like JPA
  (Jira APPSERVER-277)
- Collections are not serialized appropriately (Jira APPSERVER-293)
- Unable to read external AMF3 arrays in IExternalizable classes
  (Jira APPSERVER-283)
- Dealock issues with fix in (Jira APPSERVER-289)
- Bug with scope stopping and multithreading (Jira APPSERVER-290)
- SharedObjects modified flag doesn't get set to false (Jira APPSERVER-291)
- Delete/overwrite streams from clientside (Jira SN-20)
- InsufficientBW with VP6 encoder - live stream (Jira SN-77)
- User friendly error message for port/permission problems (Jira APPSERVER-299)
- Split demos and Flash sources into their own top level directories
- Added application snapshot repository
- Applied patches for JUnit (Jira DT-4)

Red5 0.7.0  (2008-02-23)
New Features:
- Initial Edge/Origin clustering support for multiple Edges with a single
  Origin (Jira APPSERVER-66)
- Added stream listeners that can get notified about received packets
- Support for server-side Javascript (Jira APPSERVER-169)
- Added new base class org.red5.server.adapter.MultiThreadedApplicationAdapter
  that allows multiple clients to connect simultaneously to the same
- Added new Flash Player 9 statuses NetStream.Play.FileStructureInvalid and
- New Flex admin tool (Jira APPSERVER-242)

- Pause near end of buffered streams works as expected (Jira APPSERVER-199)
- Fixed potential memory leak with RTMPT connections that are not properly
  closed (Jira APPSERVER-193)
- "onMetaData" is only written to newly recorded FLV files and contains
  valid properties now
- Don't try to decode objects for closed RTMPT connections
  (Jira APPSERVER-208)
- New multi-threaded connection code fixes various timeout issues
  (Jira APPSERVER-122, Jira APPSERVER-166 and Jira APPSERVER-167)
- Always use correct classloader inside applications (Jira APPSERVER-200)
- Tomcat cannot undeploy red5 application (Jira APPSERVER-204)
- "ByteArray" objects used old data after calling "compress" or "uncompress"
  (Jira APPSERVER-211)
- "@DontSerialize" checks for properties also in inherited classes
  (Jira APPSERVER-225)
- Enabled bidirectional class serialization (Jira APPSERVER-219)
- Array typed parameters in remoting service methods converted properly
  (Jira APPSERVER-161)

Red5 0.6.3  (2007-09-17)
New Features:
- Remoting requests from "mx:RemoteObject" supported (Jira APPSERVER-144)
- RTMPT working with Tomcat
- Added thread that writes modified persistent objects periodically.
  This reduces server load if multiple attributes of one object,
  or the same object is modified frequently.
- Location of "webapps" folder can be configured in bean "jetty6.server"
  inside "conf/red5.xml" (Jira APPSERVER-152)
- "IStreamFilenameGenerator" can specify if it returns absolute or relative
- Applications can be unloaded and loaded without restarting Red5
- "mx.collections.ArrayCollection" objects supported by AMF3 codec
- Object attributes are converted if necessary in AMF0/AMF3 codecs
- "mx.utils.ObjectProxy" objects supported by AMF3 codec (Jira APPSERVER-173)
- "IConnection" objects for Remoting properly store attributes accross
  multiple requests by using sessions
- Remoting headers are accessible through "IConnection.getConnectParams"
- "ByteArray" objects supported (Jira APPSERVER-189)
- "NetStream.send" messages are properly passed through from Flex clients
  (Jira APPSERVER-185)
- Class fields that should not be serialized when sending objects to clients
  can be annotated with "@DontSerialize" (in "org.red5.annotations")
- Public methods can be protected from being called through RTMP, RTMPT or
  Remoting by using "@DeclarePrivate" and "@DeclareProtected".
- Support for XML objects added to AMF3 codec (Jira APPSERVER-196)

- Validate RTMP handshake received from client (Jira APPSERVER-159)
- Array typed parameters are converted correctly (Jira APPSERVER-161)
- RTMPTHandler is wired through Spring (Jira APPSERVER-150)
- fixed concurrency issue in RTMP encoder that could result in wrong
  packet header types (Jira APPSERVER-177)
- IStreamAwareScopeHandler methods are also called for server side streams
- "NetConnection.Connect.AppShutdown" is returned when trying to connect
  to application that currently is unloaded (Jira APPSERVER-13)
- State is properly reset if exceptions occur in package decoding
  (Jira APPSERVER-137)
- Numbers outside integer range are correctly serialized in AMF3 codec
- return proper error object that triggers "onStatus" for
  "" in case of errors (Jira APPSERVER-192)
- Fixed endless loop in playlist controller with only one item in it
  (Jira APPSERVER-191)
- Fixed renaming across filesystems (Jira SN-59)
- Updated Jetty to 6.1.5 (Jira APPSERVER-123)
- Fixed deserialization of AMF3 encoded SO events (Jira APPSERVER-188)

Red5 0.6.2  (2007-06-17)
- "pause" no longer breaks live streams (Jira APPSERVER-136)
- Configured subscopes don't get released when a client disconnects
- AMF requests could not be decoded when run in the context root
  (Jira APPSERVER-146)
- Fixed bug for Remoting requests without parameters (Jira APPSERVER-147)
- Fixed issue with stop/start of war in Tomcat (Jira APPSERVER-155)
- Fixed handshake reply for Flash Player 9 Update 3
- IMetaData supports fractional framerates (Jira APPSERVER-157)
- Correctly reject empty stream names (Jira APPSERVER-156)
- Fixed problem with loading some JAR files from the applications
  classpath (Jira APPSERVER-141)
- Fixed decoding of Remoting requests with multiple parameters
  (Jira APPSERVER-151)

Red5 0.6.1  (2007-05-23)
New Features:
- Switched to use mina 1.1, more config options in
- Newly recorded files start with an "onMetaData" tag containing the
  duration and the codecs used
- Added a JMX subsystem with RMI and HTTP connectors
- Simplified MBean unregistration and added a registration check prior to
  the unregister attempt (Jira APPSERVER-118)
- "IServerStream" now also supports "pause" and "seek"
- Enabled RMI + SSL for JMX
- Added JMX authentication
- Added Shutdown class for cleanly shutting down a Red5 instance
- Added support for AMF3 in remoting server
- "receiveAudio" and "receiveVideo" work for VOD streams (Jira SN-22)

- "NetStream.Record.Failed" is sent for IO errors that occurred during
  recording (Jira APPSERVER-64)
- Fixed possible deadlock if methods are invoked by a connecting client
  on a client that is currently disconnecting (Jira APPSERVER-108)
- Fixed NPE when connecting without application given (Jira APPSERVER-116)
- Fixed various problems with deserialization of AMF3 objects that implement
  IExternalizable (Jira CODECS-2)
- Fixed warning about deprecated Jetty configuration (Jira APPSERVER-115)
- Fixed possible deadlock involving PersistableAttributeStore and Scope
  (Jira APPSERVER-122)
- Display better message if RMI connection to "rmiregistry" could not
  be established (Jira APPSERVER-125)
- Python scripts can import classes available only in the classpath of a
  webapp (Jira APPSERVER-92)
- Fixed Ruby application issue by updating to Spring 2.0.5 and JRuby 0.9.8
  (Jira APPSERVER-93)
- Fixed async calling of remoting methods (Jira APPSERVER-131)
- Accessing root of RTMPT server no longer results in 404 but redirects to
  HTTP port (Jira APPSERVER-130)
- Disconnect clients that don't send a valid handshake (Jira APPSERVER-128)
- Reduced max. idle time to prevent too many open sockets when using RTMPT
  with HTTP/1.0 (Jira APPSERVER-87)
- Fixed potential NPEs in PlaylistSubscriberStream (Jira SN-40)
- Fixed various problems with deserializing AMF0 references in remoting
- Fixed frozen video if audio is disabled in live streams (Jira SN-22)

Red5 0.6    (2007-04-23)
New features:
- Recording/playback of files to/from subscopes implemented
  (Jira APPSERVER-103)

- Ghost connection detection code rewritten to better detect dead clients
  (Jira APPSERVER-38, SN-37)
- Deserialization of objects defined in webapp classpath fixed
- Fixed AMF3 deserializer for references from attributes to parent classes
  (Jira APPSERVER-101)
- Jython example adjusted for new bandwidth API (Jira APPSERVER-92)
- Workaround added to deal with broken MP3 files (Jira APPSERVER-62)
- "start" and "length" are properly evaluated when playing back VOD streams
- Fixed seeking not working for MP3 or audio-only FLV files
- Don't log contents of wrong objects (Jira APPSERVER-109)
- Fixed potential NPEs in PlaylistSubscriberStream
- A client buffer of 0 on live streams no longer breaks playback (Jira CS-3)
- Fixed shutdown error in Tomcat with WAR version by updating to SLF4J 1.3.1
  (Jira APPSERVER-107)
- "NetStream.Play.InsufficientBW" is sent if client is too slow receiving
  video streams (Jira APPSERVER-51)
- Improved frame dropping code for slow connections

Red5 0.6rc3 (2007-04-11)
New features:
- Keyframe informations are cached so files don't need to be reparsed
  before playback
- Connections from Flash Media Encoder and On2 Flix Live supported
- Access to shared objects can be limited (Jira APPSERVER-25)
- Connections can provide a list of remote addresses. This is usefull
  for proxied RTMPT connections.

- Bandwidth control code has been rewritten to fix stability issues and
  memory leaking in high concurrency connection count situations
- Serialization of Maps with non-number keys fixed (Jira APPSERVER-60)
- Multiple IO processor threads are used by default
- Memory leak when closing RTMPT connections fixed (Jira APPSERVER-61)
- Merged WAR build script with primary script, also moved WAR specific
  startup servlet into trunk
- Deserializing of remoting results fixed (Jira APPSERVER-63)
- Fixed "error in object encoding" when rejecting AMF3 clients
  (Jira APPSERVER-73)
- Concurrency problems when closing a connection fixed (Jira APPSERVER-59)
- Unnecessary NetStream.Play.* events are no longer sent when playback
  stopped (Jira APPSERVER-70)
- SimplePlaylistController setRepeat and setRandom fixed (Jira SN-27)
- NPE in SimpleBWControlService fixed (Jira APPSERVER-75)
- Reference bugs in AMF3 encoder fixed (Jira APPSERVER-81)
- "NetStream.Play.Failed" is sent correctly now (Jira APPSERVER-52)
- Concurrency issue fixed in SimpleBWControlService (Jira SN-32)
- Fixed problem when decoding MP3 files with signed values in the
  ID3v2 tag size (Jira APPSERVER-86)
- "NetStream.Seek.Failed" is sent when trying to seek in live streams
  (Jira APPSERVER-84)
- "NetStream.Failed" is sent for exceptions during streaming methods
  (Jira APPSERVER-85)
- Random server freezing resolved (Jira APPSERVER-41)
- Send correct timestamps if seeking beyond end of file (Jira APPSERVER-54)
- Fixed NoSuchElementException when iterating connections during disconnect
  (Jira APPSERVER-94)
- Reference bugs im AMF3 decoder fixed (Jira APPSERVER-95)
- "NetStream.Play.Complete" is sent (APPSERVER-50)
- "NetStream.Play.Switch" is sent (APPSERVER-82)
- Streams are always played to the end (SN-8)
- Seeking in stopped streams fixed (APPSERVER-89)
- Fixed deadlock in shared objects under high load (APPSERVER-98)

Red5 0.6rc2 (2007-02-12)
New features:
- Stream classes can be configured through red5-common.xml (Trac #223)
- RTMP network library supports client mode (Trac #94)
- Source of VOD streams can be customized through IStreamFilenameGenerator
  (Trac #120)
- API: IStreamFilenameGenerator differs between playback and recording
- Results of method calls can be deferred until they are available to free
  io threads
- Transient fields will not be serialized any longer (Jira APPSERVER-27)
- Red5 compiles with Java6 now
- Support for AMF3 incl. IExternalizable objects added (Jira APPSERVER-31)
- Access to streams can be limited (Jira APPSERVER-25)
- (non-persistent) shared objects can be acquired by serverside code to
  prevent them from being released when the last client disconnects
  (Jira APPSERVER-48)

- Serialize RecordSet objects (Trac #201)
- "NetConnection.Connect.Rejected" is sent for non-existing scopes to
  match result code of FCS/FMS
- RTMPT through Jetty working again (Trac #213)
- Size of last frame is correctly written to .flv files
- Errors during "connect" are reported back to client through RTMPT
- Fixed NPE in FlowControlService thread (Trac #175)
- Deserializing of mixed arrays now works in all cases (Trac #109, #195)
- "NetStream.Record.Start" and "NetStream.Record.Stop" are sent (Trac #127)
- "NetStream.Publish.BadName" is sent if two clients try to publish/record
  a stream with the same name
- Streams stopped if bandwidth limit was set too high (Trac #165)
- Fixed potential concurrency issue in FlowControlService (Trac #224)
- Stream notification callbacks are invoked on reused connetions (Trac #133)
- The playlist is flushed by default (Jira APPSERVER-6)
- Fixed ClassCastException in "pendingVideoMessages" (Jira APPSERVER-14)
- calling "pause" with null argument works again (Jira APPSERVER-12)
- "NetStream.Publish.BadName" is only sent if another client is already
  publishing a stream
- Playing a stream while being recorded now works (Jira SN-4, SN-13)
- "IPendingServiceCall.isSuccess()" returns true when a result has been
  received (Jira APPSERVER-35)
- The "" setting from "" is evaluated
  (Jira APPSERVER-36)
- "IBroadcastStream" knows about the filename it is being recorded to
  (Jira APPSERVER-30)
- BufferOverflowException for empty RTMP packets fixed (Jira APPSERVER-37)
- FLV files are no longer locked after playback (Jira APPSERVER-17)
- SharedObjects support "getAttributes" (Jira APPSERVER-45)
- MP3 files containing images can be played back (Jira APPSERVER-47)
- Fixed parsing of long strings (Jira APPSERVER-44)
- Fixed pausing and seeking audio-only flv files (Jira SN-17)
- Number of streams is no longer limited (Jira SN-14)
- "NetStream.Play.Failed" is returned if a VOD stream can not be played
  due to IO errors (Jira APPSERVER-52)
- "NetStream.InvalidArg" is returned for invalid arguments
  (Jira APPSERVER-55)
- "NetConnection.Connect.InvalidApp" is returned for non-existing application
  scopes on the server
- "NetStream.Record.NoAccess" is returned if file could not be created
  or written to (Jira APPSERVER-53)
- Error when setting SO attributes fixed (Jira APPSERVER-57)

Red5 0.6rc1 (2006-10-30)
New features:
- Created WAR (Web Application Archive) version of Red5
  (Separate repository java/war)
- Enabled Tomcat or Jetty as J2EE container implementations
- FLV cache implementations (2 are included) (Trac #99)
- Scripting support (javascript, ruby, python, groovy, and bsh)
  based on Spring 2 and JSR223

- Last frames aren't lost when reading .flv files (Trac #90)
- FileConsumer acted on all consumer pipe events (Trac #92)
- Improved timestamps of live streams to be more in sync with FMS (Trac #93)
- FileConsumer modified position of incoming messages (Trac #91)
- Events should support reference counting (Trac #103)
- ServerStream playback jerky (Trac #77)
- "NetStream.send" events are properly recorded
- Reusing streams works (Trac #123)
- Fixed NPE if no bandwidth settings are available (Trac #129)
- "close" can be called on RTMPT connections multiple times (Trac #166)
- Fixed synchronizing problem with clients publishing repeatedly (Trac #124)
- RTMPT connections can be closed from the serverside (Trac #179)

Red5 0.5    (2006-07-25)
New features:
- Frame dropping for live streams depending on available bandwidth
- Added "receiveAudio", "receiveVideo" and "send" for streams
- Destination of recorded streams can be customized (Trac #73)
- VOD stream flow control adapts bandwidth based on buffer time (Trac #63)
- Up-/downstream bandwidth can be specified

- Only the same instances are serialized as references (Trac #58)
- Re-added JSP support in manifest file of red5.jar (Trac #59)
- "tagPosition" is updated in FLVReader when seeking (Trac #55)
- Automatic subscopes of the host scope are disabled so only connections
  to existing applications are possible
- Running "ant" after setup keeps wrapper configuration (Trac #76)
- MP3 files with unsupported sample rates are detected (Trac #66)
- Timestamps of recorded .flv files were wrong sometimes (Trac #78)
- Stream types could be reused leading to a ClassCastException (Trac #84)
- "ns.pause" working if no flag given (Trac #67)
- A keyframe is sent for paused streams when seeking

Red5 0.5rc1 (2006-07-11)
New features:
- Refactored streaming code
- Refactored scope services
- Refactored rtmp message de-/encoding
- Enabled subscopes
- Bandwidth control for on-demand streams
- Experimental support for serverside streams
- Added dynamic "onMetaData" for mp3 streams
- Added persistence for scopes and shared objects
- Added support for simple "directory-only" applications
- Added remoting client support (sync / async)
- Added deserializer for RecordSet remoting results
- Arbitrary objects can be registered as service handlers
- IClientRegistry can be customized for each scope
- WEB-INF directories are added to the classpath (Trac #27)
- Clients can be rejected with a custom error message
- Basic "onMetaData" is generated dynamically for .flv files without any
  meta data (Trac #23)

- MP3 files that have their protection bit set
- MP3 files encoded MPEG 2, Layer III (Trac #15)
- MP3 files with incomplete last frame
- Shared objects bugfixes (Trac #11, #22, #25)
- Application handlers were not called on disconnect
- IConnection.close() now closes connection (Trac #19)
- Connecting to non-existent applications returns correct error now
- Jetty correctly runs on all virtual hosts (Trac #26)
- Map objects are serialized correctly
- Methods could be invoked with converted parameters before invoking them
  with the original parameters
- Support invoking methods with "null" as parameter (Trac #29)
- Directories for recorded files are created if they don't exist (Trac #20)
- "pause(java.lang.Object, int)" was reversed for streams (Trac #16)
- Serialization of arbitrary objects uses reflect api to access fields,
  fixes various problems with inner classes and internal objects like
  IConnection / IClient
- Invalid stream ids are handled in "deleteStream" (Trac #21)
- Stream name prefixes and names without extensions supported (Trac #28)

Red5 0.4.1  (2006-05-01)
- MP3 audio streams
- "seek" and "pause" for on-demand streams (Trac #4)
- "Address already in use" fixed after restart (Trac #5)
- Bugfixes for shared objects (Trac #6)
- Bugfixes for videoconference sample (Trac #7)
- Connection strings without hostname supported (Trac #8)
- Flash 7 version of the videoconference sample added

Red5 0.4    (2006-04-20)
- Public server-side api
- AMF remoting
- Metadata API
- Basic samples and documentation

Red5 0.3    (2006-02-21)
- Live streams
- Shared objects

Red5 0.2    (2005-10-21)
- First public release
- Video streams
- Echo service



  1. Домен Name 2013.01.03 23:36 신고


cp -f /dev/null 0바이트 시킬 파일명



backtract5 다운로드 받기



보안 취약점 점검툴인 Backtrack5 버전에 대한 다운로드 경로이다.


파일은 Vmware 이미지 형식(2.3GB)과 ISO 설치 이미지 파일(3GB) 두가지 형태로 제공되며


홈페이지 직접 다운로드 및 Torrent 다운로드를 지원한다.


* 다운로드 받을때 Torrent 다운로드를 추천한다. 직접 다운로드의 경우 예상시간이 12시간 이상 나옴



다운로드 경로 :


1) 홈페이지 방문후 Download 버튼을 선택한다 (입력박스에 값을 안넣어도 무방함)


2. 다운로드 패키지 방법을 선택하고 MD5sum 밑에 조그만 네모 박스를 클릭한다.




3. 버튼클릭후 다운로드 페이지로 이동되며 10초뒤에 자동으로 다운로드가 진행된다. 






리눅스 연결된 사용자 접속 끊기


연결된 사용자 확인 

who 또는 w 명령어를 사용하여 연결된 사용자 정보를 확인한다.


아래의 hoho, test 2명의 유저가 접속되어 있다.


연결된 사용자 접속 끊기

이 hoho 사용자에 대한 연결을 끊으려고 하며 위에 TTY 정보를 참고하여 Skill 명령어를 사용한다.


#skill -KILL -v tty명




다시 확인해 보면 hoho 사용자의 연결이 종료됨을 확인할 수 있다.

Skill 명령어의 상세 옵션

Usage:   skill [signal to send] [options] process selection criteria
Example: skill -KILL -v pts/*


The default signal is TERM. Use -l or -L to list available signals.
Particularly useful signals include HUP, INT, KILL, STOP, CONT, and 0.
Alternate signals may be specified in three ways: -SIGKILL -KILL -9


General options:
-f  fast mode            This is not currently useful.
-i  interactive use      You will be asked to approve each action.
-v  verbose output       Display information about selected processes.
-w  warnings enabled     This is not currently useful.
-n  no action            This only displays the process ID.

Selection criteria can be: terminal, user, pid, command.

The options below may be used to ensure correct interpretation.

-t  The next argument is a terminal (tty or pty).
-u  The next argument is a username.
-p  The next argument is a process ID number.
-c  The next argument is a command name.



리눅스 폴더 색깔(Color) 변경하기





Putty 를 통해 가끔 ls 명령어를 통해 디렉토리를 보면 아래와 같이 검정색에 파랑?색으로 표시되어 폴더명이 잘 구분이 되지 않는다.

첨음에는 putty 설정 문제인줄 알고 이리저리 바궜으나 아래의 명령어를 입력하면  보기 쉽게 바뀐다는..

깊게 알고 싶진 않고 그냥 명령어만 저장해 둔다.


2. 명령어:


# export LS_COLORS='di=01;35'






코분투(cobuntu) 다운로드





기존 우분투에 한국 사용자들이 손쉽게 클라이언트용으로 사용하기 위해 수정된 OS 

주로 한글 입력에 필요한  "나비" 입력기 외에 오픈오피스 등 OS 사용에 필요한 기본 프로그램이 자동으로 포함되어 있어

리눅스를 모르는 사용자들이 손쉽게 접근할 수 있음


2. 다운로드









리눅스에서의 ICMP (Ping) 응답 보내지 않기



1.수정 명령어


설정값확인 : #cat  /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_all

값이 0일 경우 ICMP에 대한 응답 보냄(기본값)

값이 1일 경우 ICMP에 대한 응답 무시


ICMP 응답 무시를 위한 설정방법

#echo "1" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_all


ICMP 응답 보내기(원복)

#echo "0" > /proc/sys/net/ipv4/icmp_echo_ignore_all


*작업 후 별도의 서비스 재시작은 필요 없음


2. 테스트 




# fuser –u 디렉토리



: 디렉토리를 사용하고 있는 사용자 및 프로세스 정보를 알수 있다.

# fuser –k 디렉토리

: 디렉토리를 사용하고 있는 사용자 및 프로세서를 중지 시킨다.

# umount  재마운트 실행


usage: fuser [ -a | -s ] [ -n space ] [ -signal ] [ -kimuv ] name ...
             [ - ] [ -n space ] [ -signal ] [ -kimuv ] name ...
       fuser -l
       fuser -V

    -a        display unused files too
    -k        kill processes accessing that file
    -i        ask before killing (ignored without -k)
    -l        list signal names
    -m        mounted FS
    -n space  search in the specified name space (file, udp, or tcp)
    -s        silent operation
    -signal   send signal instead of SIGKILL
    -u        display user ids
    -v        verbose output
    -V        display version information
    -4        search IPv4 sockets only
    -6        search IPv6 sockets only
    -         reset options


  udp/tcp names: [local_port][,[rmt_host][,[rmt_port]]]





samba에 대해서 많은 자료가 있지만 최대한 간단히 설명하자면 다음과 같다.

리눅스에서 윈도우 볼륨 마운트 하기위해서는 아래의 4단계만 거치면 된다.


Windows :1. samba 연결에 사용할 계정을 생성한다.

                  (기본 user 권한, Administrator로 사용해도 되지만 보안상, 새로 만들자)

               2. 공유할 볼륨에 공유 설정을 한다.

               3. 공유 폴더에 samba 연결에 사용할 계정을 추가한다.(공유 퍼미션, 보안)


Linux      : 1. Mount 한다.


위처럼 4가지만 하면 리눅스에서 윈도우 볼륨을 마운트 하여 사용할 수 있으며 아래의 이미지를 보며 자세히 설명 하도록 하겠다.


0. 테스트 환경


Windows Server 2003 Standard , Windows 7 Pro (파일공유) <------> RHEL 6.2, CentOS 5.8 (윈도우 폴더 마운트) 



1. samba 연결에 사용할 계정을 생성한다. :  신규료 생성한 계정명은 sambauser

    주의 :생성한 계정의 패스워드에 특수문자가 있을경우 mount시 오류가 발생되는 경우가 있다



2. samba 공유를 위해 윈도우 공유를 선택하고 앞에서 생성한 sambauser 추가한다.

   보안 탭에서도 sambauser를 추가한다.




3. 리눅스 (Centos 5.8, RHEL 6.2)에서 마운트 한다.

     1) 아래의번 서버는 윈도우에서 공유한 서버 IP이며 org 은 공유 폴더 명이다.

         (위 캡처화면상으로는 CD-ROM으로 되어있지만 공유폴더명은 org다, 캡처를 다시 찍기가 귀찮아서..ㅠㅜ)

     2) 마운트한 /samba 의 경우 리눅스에서 사전에 만들었다.

     3) -o username 이후로는 띄어 쓰기 없다.

    4) 아래의 붉은 글씨만 수정해서 연결해 보자


mount -t cifs // /samba -o username=sambauser,password



기타. 테스트해본결과 Windows 7에서 파일 공유 후 리눅스에서 Mount 했을시에 아래와 같은 메시지가 표시되었다. (windows 2003의 경우 정상)


에러 메시지

mount error(12): Cannot allocate memory
Refer to the mount.cifs(8) manual page (e.g. man mount.cifs)


이경우 아래의 URL을 참고하여 레지스트리 값을 편집하고 재부팅하면 리눅스에서 재대로 마운트 되었다.

본인의 경우 최대치인 50을 입력하였다.


레지스트리 편집 :







아래의 Ethernet 글쓰면서 생각한건데 아래의 명령어를 통하면 보다 상세히 확인이 가능하다.

아래는 전체 내용중 일부이며, 메모리, CPU, 메인보드, 바이오스 등등의 정보등을 볼수 있다.


물론 /proc/ 경로에 가서 일일히 찾아도 되고..








 가끔 설치된 서버의 현황 파악을 위해? 또는 드라이버 업데이트를 위해 설치된 랜카드 정보를 확인할때가 있다.

물론 서버 모델명을 치면 나오지만 간단히 명령어를 통해 확인할 수 있는 방법을 소개 한다.


/sbin/lspci | grep Ethernet


호스트명은 보안상 모자이크 처리 리얼텍 랜카드의 세부 모델명이 나왔다.







리눅스 설치 후 환경설정 파일을 수정후 확인해 보면 날짜 또는 시간이 맞지 않는 경우가 있다.


이를 간단히 Rdate 명령어를 통해 동기화 하는 방법을 소개 한다.


1. 현재 내서버의 시간 확인

[root@tistory Muser]# date
Wed Jun 27 08:57:34 KST 2012


2. 동기화할 서버(NTP 서버)의 시간확인 : 여기서 조회할 NTP 서버는 이다.

[root@tistory Muser]# rdate -p
rdate: [] Wed Jun 13 11:13:05 2012


3. 동기화 명령어

[root@tistory Muser]# rdate -s
[root@tistory Muser]# date
Wed Jun 13 11:13:26 KST 2012

4. 그외의 옵션








아래의 스크립트를 수정하여 crontab에 등록하여 사용하세요.



BACKUP_PATH="/image_source"  # 백업할 파일이 있는 위치

FTP_IP=" 백업할공간(FTP 서버)
FTP_ID="" # FTP서버에 접속할 ID
FTP_PW=" FTP서버에 접속할 Password


 # 환경변수 저장 끝


$FTP_CMD -nvp $FTP_IP << EOF
 user "$FTP_ID" "$FTP_PW"
 cd array3  # CD 명령어를 통해 FTP내 파일이 저장될 위치까지 이동
 cd image_source
 mput *.$DATE.dat  # xxx.백업일자.dat 형식의 모든 파일이 업로드됨(예) hosts.20120623.dat)

 echo "**  파일전송 완료 **"






가끔식 CPU별 사용량을 알고 싶을 때가 있다.

윈도우의 경우 작업관리자-성능에 들아가면 CPU별로 사용률에 대하여 나오는데 리눅수는 마땅히 찾지 못했다.

다만 sar 명령어를 통하여 확인하는 방법을 찾았으니..

바로 -P ALL 옵션을 주면 전체 CPU에 대한 사용률을 볼수 있다는 사실

아래는 4Core CPU를 나타내며 -u 3 100 옵션은 3초간격으로 100번 조회라나는 의미이다.


[testuser@hosts1 ~]$ sar -P ALL -u 3 100
Linux 2.6.9-55.ELsmp (hosts1)       06/18/12

16:12:14          CPU     %user     %nice   %system   %iowait     %idle
16:12:17          all      0.67      0.00      2.33      0.08     96.92
16:12:17            0      0.66      0.00      2.66      0.00     96.68
16:12:17            1      0.33      0.00      1.00      0.00     98.67
16:12:17            2      0.33      0.00      2.33      0.00     97.34
16:12:17            3      1.67      0.00      3.01      0.00     95.32

16:12:17          CPU     %user     %nice   %system   %iowait     %idle
16:12:20          all      1.00      0.00      3.25      0.00     95.75
16:12:20            0      2.00      0.00      5.00      0.00     93.00
16:12:20            1      0.33      0.00      3.00      0.00     96.67
16:12:20            2      1.00      0.00      3.00      0.00     96.00
16:12:20            3      0.67      0.00      1.67      0.00     97.66

16:12:20          CPU     %user     %nice   %system   %iowait     %idle
16:12:23          all      0.42      0.08      0.92      0.00     98.58
16:12:23            0      0.33      0.00      2.33      0.00     97.33
16:12:23            1      0.00      0.00      0.33      0.00     99.67
16:12:23            2      0.00      0.00      0.00      0.00    100.00
16:12:23            3      1.00      0.00      1.33      0.33     97.34






  1. DNW 2012.07.21 15:05 신고

    지인이 추천해줘서 산 i5-3550. 기본 성능으로도 굉장히 만족스러웠는데 딱히 다른 사제 쿨러 필요없이 기본 쿨러로도 오버 클럭이 안정적으로 가능하다네요. 덕분에 끊김없이 게임 잘 하고 있습니다. 전력도 적게 먹는다던데 밑에 링크 한번 참고해보시는 것도 좋을 거 같네요. I5-3550 추천할 만한 쿼드급 CPU인거 같습니다.

script 명령어는 리눅스,Solaris에서 사용가능하다.[다른건 잘 모르겠음]


ls > log.txt 형식으로 파일을 보내는 방식은 일시적으로 사용할때에는 유용하나 작업의 히스토리 관리차원에서는 불편하다.

주로 메뉴얼 만들때 설치하거나 오라클 , Apache 프로그램 설치시 사용한다.


사용법 : script -a 저장할경로


저장할 필요가 없을 경우 exit를 눌러 내용저장을 마무리 한다.


[testpc@user ~]$ script -a /home/testpc/log.txt =>출력 내용 저장
Script started, file is /home/testpc/log.txt

[testpc@user ~]$ ls
Desktop  log.txt  svn  typescript

[testpc@user ~]$ which scripts
/usr/bin/which: no scripts in (/usr/lib/qt-3.3/bin:/usr/kerberos/bin:/usr/local/bin:/bin:/usr/bin:/home/administrator/bin)

[testpc@user ~]$ exit => 종료
Script done, file is /home/testpc/log.txt


[testpc@user ~]$ cat /home/testpc/log.txt => 저장 내용 확인 (위에서 입력했던 내용이 저장됨)
Script started on 2012년 01월 01일 01시 20분

[testpc@user ~]$ ls
Desktop  log.txt  svn  typescript

[testpc@user ~]$ which scripts
/usr/bin/which: no scripts in (/usr/lib/qt-3.3/bin:/usr/kerberos/bin:/usr/local/bin:/bin:/usr/bin:/home/administrator/bin)
[testpc@user ~]$ exit
Script done on 2012년 01월 01일 01시 22분






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